Measuring Twenty-First Century Skills: Development and Validation of a Scale for In-service and Pre-service Teachers

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In this article, the authors discuss their development and validation of a self-report scale that measures teachers' confidence in teaching students about twenty-first century skills. Sixteen items were created to measure teaching confidence in six areas: information literacy, collaboration, communication, innovation and creativity, problem solving, and responsible citizenship. Then, the items were tested in two groups of pre-service teachers and two groups of in-service teachers respectively. This study suggests that different scales should be used to measure in-service teachers’ and pre-service teachers’ confidence in teaching twenty-first century skills.


Yueming Jia, Youn Joo Oh, Bernadette Sibuma, Frank LaBanca, Mhora Lorentson

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24 pp.
Measuring 21st century skills